F l o r i a n P E T R E S C U\’ s B o o k s S t o r eThe Design of Gearings with High EfficiencyISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0A Short Book Description: Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements, which involve more complex topological structures. Modern industry, the practice of engineering design and manufacture increasingly rely more on scientific research results and practical. The processes

via The Efficiency of Gearings – THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY.

 


F l o r i a n   P E T R E S C U’ s   B o o k s   S t o r e

The Design of Gearings with High Efficiency

ISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0


A Short Book Description:

Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements, which involve more complex topological structures. Modern industry, the practice of engineering design and manufacture increasingly rely more on scientific research results and practical.

The processes of robotisation of today define and influence the emergence of new industries, with applications in specific environmental conditions, handling of objects in outer space, and are leading teleoperator in disciplines such as medicine, automations, nuclear energetic, etc.

In this context this paper attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings.

The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gear. The originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. The work is analyzing the influence of a few parameters concerning gear efficiency. These parameters are: z1 – the number of teeth for the primary wheel of gear; z2 – the number of teeth of the secondary wheel of gear; ?0 – the normal pressure angle on the divided circle; ? – the inclination angle. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms.

We begin with the right teeth (the toothed gear), with i=-4, once for z1 we shall take successively different values, rising from 8 teeth. One can see that for 8 teeth of the driving wheel the standard pressure angle, ?0=200, is too small to be used (it obtains a minimum pressure angle, ?m, negative and this fact is not admitted; see the first table). In the second table we shall diminish (in module) the value for the ratio of transmission, i, from 4 to 2. We will see how for a lower value of the number of teeth of the wheel 1, the standard pressure angle (a0=200) is too small and it will be necessary to increase it to a minimum value. For example, if z1=8, the necessary minimum value is a0=290 for an i=-4 (see the table 1) and a0=280 for an i=-2 (see the table 2). If z1=10, the necessary minimum pressure angle is a0=260 for i=-4 (see the table 1) and a0=250 for i=-2 (see the table 2). When the number of teeth of the wheel 1 increases, we can decrease the normal pressure angle, a0. We will see that for z1=90 it can take a less value for the normal pressure angle (for the pressure angle of reference), a0=80. In the table 3 we increases the module of i value (the ratio of transmission), from 2 to 6.

In the table 4, the teeth are bended (b?0). The module i takes now the value 2.

The efficiency (of the gear) increases when the number of teeth for the driving wheel 1, z1, increases, and when the pressure angle, ?0, diminishes; z2 and i12 have not so much influence about the efficiency value.

We can easily see that for the value ?0=200, the efficiency takes roughly the value ??0.89 for any values of the others parameters (this justifies the choice of this value, ?0=200, for the standard pressure angle of reference).

But the better efficiency may be obtained only for a ?0?200 (?0<200).

The pressure angle of reference, ?0, can be decreased, when in the same time, the number of teeth for the driving wheel 1, z1, increases, to increase the gears’ efficiency.

Contrary, when we desire to create a gear with a low z1 (for a less gauge), it will be necessary to increase the ?0 value, for maintaining a positive value for ?m (in this case the gear efficiency will be diminished).

When ? increases, the efficiency (?) increases too, but its growth is insignificant. We can see in the last part of the work, that in reality it (? increases) produces a decrease in yield.

The module of the gear, m, has not any influence on the gear’s efficiency value.

When ?0 is diminished one can take a higher normal module, for increasing the addendum of teeth, but the increase of the m at the same time with the increase of the z1 can lead to a greater gauge.

The gears’ efficiency (?) is really a function of ?0 and z1: ?=f(?0,z1); the two angles (?m and ?M) are just the intermediate parameters (intermediate variables).

For a good projection of the gear, it’s necessary a z1 and a z2 greater than 30-60; but this condition may increase the gauge of mechanism; when the numbers of teeth z1 and z2 beyond the 30 value, the efficiency of the gearing are greater, and the values of the two different efficiencies leveled; this can be a great advantage in transmissions, especially in planetary transmissions, where the moments may come from both directions; will result a better and more equilibrated functionality (But these are the subject of a future work).

In the second (and last) part the book presents shortly an original method to obtain the efficiency of the geared transmissions in function of the contact ratio. With the presented relations one can make the dynamic synthesis of the geared transmissions having in view increasing the efficiency of gearing mechanisms in work (the accuracy of calculations will be high).

One calculates the efficiency of a geared transmission, having in view the fact that at one moment there are several couples of teeth in contact, and not just one.

The start model has got four pairs of teeth in contact (4 couples) concomitantly.

The first couple of teeth in contact has the contact point i, defined by the ray ri1, and the pressure angle ai1; the forces which act at this point are: the motor force Fmi, perpendicular to the position vector ri1 at i and the force transmitted from the wheel 1 to the wheel 2 through the point i, Fti, parallel to the path of action and with the sense from the wheel 1 to the wheel 2, the transmitted force being practically the projection of the motor force on the path of action; the defined velocities are similar to the forces (having in view the original kinematics, or the precise kinematics adopted); the same parameters will be defined for the next three points of contact, j, k, l (see fig. 2).

The best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring; the minimum efficiency will be obtained when the drive wheel 1 of the internal gearing has external teeth. For the external gearing, the best efficiency is obtained when the bigger wheel is the drive wheel; when one decreases the normal angle a0, the contact ratio increases and the efficiency increases as well. The efficiency increases too, when the number of teeth of the drive wheel 1 increases (when z1 increases).

Generally we use gearings with teeth inclined (with bended teeth). For gears with bended teeth, the calculations show a decrease in yield when the inclination angle increases. For angles with inclination which not exceed 25 degree the efficiency of gearing is good (see the table 6). When the inclination angle (?) exceeds 25 degrees the gearing will suffer a significant drop in yield (see the tables 7 and 8).

The calculation relationships (33-35) are general (Have a general nature). They have the advantage that can be used with great precision in determining the efficiency of any type of gearings.

1 Introduction

In this paper the authors present an original method to calculating the efficiency of the gear.

The originality consists in the way of determination of the gear’s efficiency because one hasn’t used the friction forces of couple (this new way eliminates the classical method). One eliminates the necessity of determining the friction coefficients by different experimental methods as well. The efficiency determined by the new method is the same like the classical efficiency, namely the mechanical efficiency of the gear.

Some mechanisms work by pulses and are transmitting the movement from an element to another by pulses and not by friction. Gears work practically only by pulses. The component of slip or friction is practically the loss. Because of this the mechanical efficacy becomes practically the mechanical efficiency of gear.

The paper is analyzing the influence of a few parameters concerning gear efficiency. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms. Today, the gears are present every where in the mechanical’s world.


 

Author: Florian Ion TIBERIU-PETRESCU Company: UPB POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST TMR Department Residence: BUCHAREST – ROMANIA – EUROPE Websites:

dynamics.ro expertdyna Cars

Memorable Quote 1: Drivetrain Expert (Gear And Gearing Expert) Memorable Quote 2: Otto Engines Expert (Powertrain Expert)

Florian PETRESCU\\\’s Books Store.

 

http://floriansbooksstore.blogspot.com

 

THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY

 

ISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0

THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY

 

ISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0 Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements; the gearing mechanisms are found today everywhere: in the industry of machinery construction, in energy industry, in aeronautics and aerospace, in electronics& Electrical, in oil industry, in mechatronics and robotics, etc. In this context this book attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings. The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gearing; the originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms; the best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring. Paperback, 32 pages $15.24 | or File Download, PDF Format $9.21


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Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements; the gearing mechanisms are found today everywhere: in the industry of machinery construction, in energy industry, in aeronautics and aerospace, in electronics& Electrical, in oil industry, in mechatronics and robotics, etc. In this context this book attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings. The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gearing; the originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms; the best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring.

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THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY

Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements; the gearing mechanisms are found today everywhere: in the industry of machinery construction, in energy industry, in aeronautics and aerospace, in electronics& Electrical, in oil industry, in mechatronics and robotics, etc. In this context this book attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings. The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gearing; the originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms; the best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring.

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“SISTEME MECANICE MOBILE SERIALE ŞI PARALELE” – autori: Florian PETRESCU si Relly PETRESCU, de la Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti.

Lucrarea reprezintă o viziune ştiinţifică, unitară, generală, cuprinzătoare şi echidistantă a principalelor probleme pe care le ridică sistemele mecanice, mobile, seriale şi paralele. Se face o prezentare generală, urmată de studiul geometro-cinematic separat, al structurilor seriale şi paralele. Se continuă cu o introducere în dinamica acestor sisteme. Structura sistemelor paralele este vizualizată pe scurt. La sistemele seriale se studiază atât cinematica directă cât şi cea indirectă, în vreme ce la sistemele paralele se urmăreşte numai cinematica indirectă (aceasta fiind mult mai utilă). Prezentarea metodelor de bază este strâns legată de calculul matricial, care este introdus pas cu pas pentru uşurarea înţelegerii fiecărei secvenţe.

Cartea este structurată în 14 capitole, care au avut ca bază de pornire cele 14 cursuri fundamentale pregătite pentru masteranzii de la disciplinele mecatronică, roboţi industriali, manipulatori, sudare automatizată, etc.

Lucrarea se adresează însă în egală măsură tuturor specialiştilor, şi viitorilor specialişti (studenţi) care lucrează în aceste domenii, sau au tangenţe cu aceste frumoase discipline: mecatronica, robotica, automatizarea proceselor. Ea poate fi un instrument preţios şi pentru proiectanţii (designerii) acestor sisteme, pentru cei care construiesc, achiziţionează, utilizează, sau întreţin sisteme mecanice mobile seriale sau paralele.

Pentru detalii apasati aici.

 

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MASTER TMR

January 16, 2011

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ADMITERE

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Durata studiilor: 1,5 ani/3 sem.,

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Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de calcul şi de modelare cinematică şi dinamică a unor sisteme biomorfe şi biomecanice cu aplicaţii tehnice şi medicale;

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Modelarea structurală, cinematică şi dinamică a sistemelor mecanice acţionate electric, hidraulic, pneumatic etc.;

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Candidatii admisi la master cu plată si care sunt deja angajati, pot beneficia, la cerere, de un regim preferential al comasarii unor activitati didactice.

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Candidatii admisi la master pot beneficia de burse de studiu pe durate de 3, 4, 6, 12 luni la universitatile partenere din Europa.

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0)Pentru înscriere, un dosar plic, care trebuie sa contina urmatoarele documente:

1) – fisa de înscriere tip obtinuta de la Comisia de admitere a facultatii, în care se va mentiona sub semnatura si raspundere proprie toate datele solicitate. În fisa de înscriere nu se admit modificari, adaugiri sau stersaturi;

2) – doua fotografii, tip buletin de identitate;

3) – diploma de bacalaureat, în original;

4) – diploma de licenta/inginer sau echivalenta acesteia, în original (candidatii din promotia 2009 pot fi înscrisi si pe baza adeverintei de absolvire, cu precizarea mediei generale a anilor de studii si a mediei de la examenul de diploma/licenta);

5) – foaia matricola/suplimentul la diploma în copie, confirmata de secretariatul facultatii absolvite;

6) – certificatul de nastere în copie legalizata;

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9) – buletin/carte de identitate în copie;

10) – chitanta de plata a taxei de admitere, obtinuta de la secretariatul facultatii.

*) Pentru respectarea prevederilor în vigoare privind regimul actelor de studii în România, toti candidatii vor fi înscrisi la concursul de admitere cu numele din certificatul de nastere, inclusiv în cazurile în care din anumite motive ei si-au schimbat acest nume.

1. Relaţii suplimentare la secretariatul catedrei TMR (Sala JC 102) Telefon: 021-4029632, e-mail: catedramecanismesiroboti@yahoo.com

New Aircraft (New ionic engines, or beam engines).

 

New Aircraft (New ionic engines, or beam engines)

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NEW AIRCRAFT

 

F.I. Petrescu1

1 Bucharest Polytechnic University, Bucharest, ROMANIA, petrescuflorian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Speaking about a new ionic engine means to speak about a new aircraft. The paper presents shortly the actual ionic engines (called ion thrusters) and the new ionic (pulse) engines proposed by the author. Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion. We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses pulses of positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core). Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy). We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel and power. One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine), it’ll use only the power (energy, which can be solar energy, nuclear energy, or both) and so we will remove the fuel. It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission. With a new ionic engine one builds a new aircraft, which can travel through water and. This new aircraft will can accelerate directly, without an additional combustion engine and without gravity assists from other planets.

 

Keywords: high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron, circular particle accelerator, new aircraft, new ionic engine


1. ION THRUSTER [1]

 

 

1.1. About the ion thruster

An ion thruster is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating ions. Ion thrusters are characterized by how they accelerate the ions, using either electrostatic or electromagnetic force. Electrostatic ion thrusters use the Coulomb Force and accelerate the ions in the direction of the electric field. Electromagnetic ion thrusters use the Lorentz Force to accelerate the ions. Note that the term “ion thruster” frequently denotes the electrostatic or gridded ion thrusters, only.

The thrust created in ion thrusters is very small compared to conventional chemical rockets, but a very high specific impulse, or propellant efficiency, is obtained.

Due to their relatively high power needs, given the specific power of power supplies, and the requirement of an environment void of other ionized particles, ion thrust propulsion currently is only practicable in outer space.

The first experiments with ion thrusters were carried out by Robert Goddard at Clark College from 1916-1917. The technique was recommended for near-vacuum conditions at high altitude, but thrust was demonstrated with ionized air streams at atmospheric pressure. The idea appeared again in Hermann Oberth‘s “Wege zur Raumschiffahrt” (Ways to Spaceflight), published in 1923.

A working ion thruster was built by Harold R. Kaufman in 1959 at the NASA Glenn facilities. It was similar to the general design of a gridded electrostatic ion thruster with mercury as its fuel. Suborbital tests of the engine followed during the 1960s and in 1964 the engine was sent into a suborbital flight aboard the Space Electric Rocket Test 1 (SERT 1). It successfully operated for the planned 31 minutes before falling back to Earth.

1.2. Hall effect thruster

The Hall effect thruster was studied independently in the U.S. and the USSR in the 1950s and 60s. However, the concept of a Hall thruster was only developed into an efficient propulsion device in the former Soviet Union, whereas in the U.S., scientists focused instead on developing gridded ion thrusters. Hall effect thrusters were operated on Soviet satellites since 1972. Until the 1990s they were mainly used for satellite stabilization in North-South and in East-West directions. Some 100-200 engines completed their mission on Soviet and Russian satellites until the late 1990s. Soviet thruster design was introduced to the West in 1992 after a team of electric propulsion specialists, under the support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, visited Soviet laboratories.

Ion thrusters utilize beams of ions (electrically charged atoms or molecules) to create thrust in accordance with Newton’s third law. The method of accelerating the ions varies, but all designs take advantage of the charge/mass ratio of the ions. This ratio means that relatively small potential differences can create very high exhaust velocities. This reduces the amount of reaction mass or fuel required, but increases the amount of specific power required compared to chemical rockets. Ion thrusters are therefore able to achieve extremely high specific impulses. The drawback of the low thrust is low spacecraft acceleration because the mass of current electric power units is directly correlated with the amount of power given. This low thrust makes ion thrusters unsuited for launching spacecraft into orbit, but they are ideal for in-space propulsion applications.

Hall effect thrusters accelerate ions with the use of an electric potential maintained between a cylindrical anode and a negatively charged plasma which forms the cathode. The bulk of the propellant (typically xenon or bismuth gas) is introduced near the anode, where it becomes ionised, and the ions are attracted towards the cathode, they accelerate towards and through it, picking up electrons as they leave to neutralize the beam and leave the thruster at high velocity.

The anode is at one end of a cylindrical tube, and in the center is a spike which is wound to produce a radial magnetic field between it and the surrounding tube. The ions are largely unaffected by the magnetic field, since they are too massive. However, the electrons produced near the end of the spike to create the cathode are far more affected and are trapped by the magnetic field, and held in place by their attraction to the anode. Some of the electrons spiral down towards the anode, circulating around the spike in a Hall current. When they reach the anode they impact the uncharged propellant and cause it to be ionised, before finally reaching the anode and closing the circuit.

1.3. Gridded electrostatic ion thrusters

Gridded electrostatic ion thrusters commonly utilize xenon gas. This gas has no charge and is ionized by bombarding it with energetic electrons. These electrons can be provided from a hot cathode filament and accelerated in the electrical field of the cathode fall to the anode (Kaufman type ion thruster). Alternatively, the electrons can be accelerated by the oscillating electric field induced by an alternating magnetic field of a coil, which results in a self-sustaining discharge and omits any cathode (radiofrequency ion thruster).

The positively charged ions are extracted by an extraction system consisting of 2 or 3 multi-aperture grids. After entering the grid system via the plasma sheath the ions are accelerated due to the potential difference between the first and second grid (named screen and accelerator grid) to the final ion energy of typically 1-2 keV, thereby generating the thrust.

Ion thrusters emit a beam of positive charged xenon ions only. In order to avoid the charging-up of the spacecraft another cathode, placed near the engine, emits additional electrons (basically the electron current is the same as the ion current) into the ion beam. This also prevents the beam of ions from returning to the spacecraft and thereby cancelling the thrust.

Gridded electrostatic ion thruster research (past/present):

NASA Solar electric propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR)

NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS)

High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP)

EADS Radio-Frequency Ion Thruster (RIT)

Dual-Stage 4-Grid (DS4G)

1.4. Field Emission Electric Propulsion

Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) thrusters use a very simple system of accelerating liquid metal ions to create thrust. Most designs use either caesium or indium as the propellant. The design consists of a small propellant reservoir that stores the liquid metal, a very small slit that the liquid flows through, and then the accelerator ring. Caesium and indium are used due to their high atomic weights, low ionization potentials, and low melting points. Once the liquid metal reaches the inside of the slit in the emitter, an electric field applied between the emitter and the accelerator ring causes the liquid metal to become unstable and ionize. This creates a positive ion, which can then be accelerated in the electric field created by the emitter and the accelerator ring. These positively charged ions are then neutralized by an external source of electrons in order to prevent charging of the spacecraft hull.

1.5. Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

Pulsed Inductive Thrusters (PIT) use pulses of thrust instead of one continuous thrust, and have the ability to run on power levels in the order of Megawatts (MW). PITs consist of a large coil encircling a cone shaped tube that emits the propellant gas. Ammonia is the gas commonly used in PIT engines. For each pulse of thrust the PIT gives, a large charge first builds up in a group of capacitors behind the coil and is then released. This creates a current that moves circularly. The current then creates a magnetic field in the outward radial direction (Br), which then creates a current in the ammonia gas that has just been released in the opposite direction of the original current. This opposite current ionizes the ammonia and these positively charged ions are accelerated away from the PIT engine due to the electric field crossing with the magnetic field Br, which is due to the Lorentz Force.

1.6. Magnetoplasmadynamic

Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters and Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator (LiLFA) thrusters use roughly the same idea with the LiLFA thruster building off of the MPD thruster. Hydrogen, argon, ammonia, and nitrogen gas can be used as propellant. The gas first enters the main chamber where it is ionized into plasma by the electric field between the anode and the cathode. This plasma then conducts electricity between the anode and the cathode. This new current creates a magnetic field around the cathode which crosses with the electric field, thereby accelerating the plasma due to the Lorentz Force. The LiLFA thruster uses the same general idea as the MPD thruster, except for two main differences. The first difference is that the LiLFA uses lithium vapor, which has the advantage of being able to be stored as a solid. The other difference is that the cathode is replaced by multiple smaller cathode rods packed into a hollow cathode tube. The cathode in the MPD thruster is easily corroded due to constant contact with the plasma. In the LiLFA thruster the lithium vapor is injected into the hollow cathode and is not ionized to its plasma form/corrode the cathode rods until it exits the tube. The plasma is then accelerated using the same Lorentz Force.

1.7. Electrodeless Plasma Thrusters

Electrodeless Plasma Thrusters have two unique features, the removal of the anode and cathode electrodes and the ability to throttle the engine. The removal of the electrodes takes away the factor of erosion which limits lifetime on other ion engines. Neutral gas is first ionized by electromagnetic waves and then transferred to another chamber where it is accelerated by an oscillating electric and magnetic field, also known as the ponderomotive force. This separation of the ionization and acceleration stage give at the engine the ability to throttle the speed of propellant flow, which then changes the thrust magnitude and specific impulse values [1].

1.8. Plasma Micro Thruster

In the picture number 1 one presents „A Plasma Micro Thruster” Schematic and Prototype (see the figure 1, and [2]).

 

 








Fig. 1: Plasma Micro Thruster, Schematic and Prototype


2. THE HiPEP ENGINE

 

2.1. Powerful ion engine relies on microwaves

A powerful new ion propulsion system has been successfully ground-tested by NASA. The High Power Electric Propulsion ion engine trial marks the “first measurable milestone” for the ambitious $3 billion Project Prometheus, says director Alan Newhouse.

The HiPEP engine is the first tested propulsion technology with the potential power and longevity to thrust spacecraft as far as Jupiter without gravity assists from other planets.

These assists involve slingshot manoeuvres around planets and can boost the speed of craft significantly. But they require specific planetary alignments, meaning suitable launch dates are rare.

In contrast, a probe powered by a HiPEP engine could launch any time. One goal of Project Prometheus, formerly called the Nuclear Systems Initiative, is to launch a spacecraft towards Jupiter by 2011. The flight would take at least eight years.

The key elements of the HiPEP engine are a high exhaust velocity, a microwave-based method for producing ions that performs for longer than existing technologies and a rectangular design that can more easily be scaled up than circular ones.

Spacecraft are increasingly being built with ion engines rather than engines that burn rocket fuel. This is because ion engines produce more power for a given amount of propellant, and provide a smooth output rather than intermittent spurts.

“Jupiter is such a far away target. Using a chemical system, you just couldn’t do it,” says John Foster, one of the principal creators of the engine at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

The HiPEP engine differs from earlier ion engines, such as that powering NASA’s Deep Space One mission, because the xenon ions are produced using a combination of microwaves and spinning magnets. Previously the electrons required were provided by a cathode. Using microwaves significantly reduces the wear and tear on the engine by avoiding any contact between the speeding ions and the electron source.

2.2. Nuclear fission

A Japanese asteroid-chasing spacecraft is already using microwave-based technology to produce ions, but Hayabusa uses a small device that could not produce enough power to fly to Jupiter. The HiPEP engine is currently capable of 12 kilowatts of power but its output will be boosted to at least 50 kW for the Jupiter mission.

The rectangular cross section of the HiPEP engine will make this easier, as it can be expanded along one of its sides. A circular engine would have to be rebuilt, says NASA.

Nonetheless, other researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, are working on a cylindrical high-power ion engine, also for the Prometheus project. But Newhouse notes that building a powerful, long-lasting propulsion system is just “one of the pieces we need to get to Jupiter”. The electricity for the ion engine is slated to come from on-board nuclear fission reactor. This part of the Prometheus Project is just beginning, with safety considerations, the miniaturisation of the reactor and the identity of the fuel all needing to be decided.


3. NEW IONIC OR BEAM PULSE ENGINE

 

By this paper the author propose a new pulse engine which works with beam or ionic (ionic beam) pulses. With a new ionic engine one builds a new aircraft (a new ship). The principal characteristic of this kind of engine is the high power (energy) which accelerates the beam at very high energy, in circular accelerators, in modern linear accelerators (LINAC), or in both. One can use accelerators similar with the static physics accelerators (synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron).

Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion. We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy; see the figure 3) . Sure that the difficulties will arise from design, but they need to be resolved step by step. We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel. One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine).

A linear particle accelerator (also called a LINAC) is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. This sort of particle accelerator has many applications. It used recently as to an injector into a higher energy synchrotron at a dedicated experimental particle physics laboratory. In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core).

The design of a LINAC depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electron, proton or ion.

It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission (figure 3).

One can use a LINAC in the entry in the Synchrotron and one at out (figure 2). To use a small entrance LINAC, between him and synchrotron, one put an additional speed circuit in a stadium form (fig. 2).

The end LINAC can be reduced if one put more end LINACs. See diagram below (fig. 2.) © 2008 Florian Ion TIBERIU-PETRESCU

 

 









Fig. 2: A high energy synchrotron schema

 

 

 

 

 

 









Fig. 3: Some flying synchrotron prototypes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 






CONCLUSION

 

Speaking about a new ionic engine means to speak about a new aircraft.

The paper presents shortly the actual ionic engines (called ion thrusters) and the new ionic (pulse) engines proposed by the author. Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion.

We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses pulses of positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV).

Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy). We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel and power. One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine), it’ll use only the power (energy, which can be solar energy, nuclear energy, or both) and so we will remove the fuel.

A linear particle accelerator (also called a LINAC) is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. This sort of particle accelerator has many applications. It used recently as to an injector into a higher energy synchrotron at a dedicated experimental particle physics laboratory. In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core).

The design of a LINAC depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electron, proton or ion.

It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission (figure 3).

One can use a LINAC in the entry in the Synchrotron and one at out (figure 2). To use a small entrance LINAC, between him and synchrotron, one put an additional speed circuit in a stadium form (fig. 2).

With a new ionic engine one builds a new aircraft, which can travel through water and. This new aircraft will can accelerate directly, without an additional combustion engine and without gravity assists from other planets

Ionic engine (ion thruster) has 2 major advantages (a) and 2 disadvantages (b) compared with chemical propulsion; (a) the impulse and energy per unit of fuel used are much higher; 1-the increased impulse generates a higher speed (velocity; so we can walk longer distances in a short time), 2-the high energy decreases fuel consumption and increase the autonomy of the ship; (b) generate force and acceleration are very small; we can not defeat any forces of resistance to lodging by atmosphere and we have no chance to exceed gravitational forces – ship will not leave a planet (or fall on it) using the ion thruster (It required an additional motor). Vacuum ship acceleration is possible but only with very small acceleration.

Increasing more the energy (and also the impulse) can reach the necessary forces and acceleration (Growth will need to be very high, 100 PeV-1000 PeV). Particles energy increased can be made with accelerators circular and or modern linear. Particles energy increased will be huge and in addition will need to grow and the flow of accelerated particles (and the tor diameter; if one increases enough the flow, the necessary energy will be 10 GeV-10 TeV).

Immediate consequence of increasing particle energy will be the increasing of speeds and autonomy of the ship. Now we can achieve huge speeds in a very short time. The ship will pass through any atmosphere (including water) with great ease. The ship can take off or land directly.

Initially one can use to ship the old forms (the old design) which adapts and the accelerator(s).

 

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, net,

[2] Dan Tanna, Technology today, edit on 10-6-2008, a net Link.

New Aircraft (New Ship)

voli low cost amsterdam
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EuropaFM(ROU)


Astronomers discover distant solar system with five planets Washington Post – 11/7/2007


Now, it’s our time to conquer the space! We can do it, but not with our “old space waggons”.
We must build new aircrafts.

First step! Build a 7GeV flying circular accelerator; this will be a small new aircraft (ship) and the new engine.


Geo Visitors Map


New (ionic or beam) engine => New Aircaft
© 2008 Florian Ion PETRESCU |
PhD Eng. at TMR, UPB, ROMANIA|

@font-face { font-family: “Arial Black”; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: “Times New Roman”; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }

(The Copyright Law, March 01 1989, U.S. Copyright Office,

Library of Congress, Washington DC, 20559-6000 202-707-3000)

UFO (OZN) = A Flying Cyclotron? | © 2008 Ion PETRESCU – New (ionic, or beam) engines => New Aircraft (ship) | © 2008 Florian PETRESCU

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(The Copyright Law, March 01 1989, U.S. Copyright Office,

Library of Congress, Washington DC, 20559-6000 202-707-3000)

________________________________________________________

p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: “Times New Roman”; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }

Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion. We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy). Sure that the difficulties will arise from design, but they need to be resolved step by step. We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel.

One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine).

p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0mm 0mm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: “Times New Roman”; }a:link, span.MsoHyperlink { color: blue; text-decoration: underline; }a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed { color: purple; text-decoration: underline; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }

A linear particle accelerator (also called a LINAC) is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. This sort of particle accelerator has many applications. It used recently as to an injector into a higher energy synchrotron at a dedicated experimental particle physics laboratory. In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core). The design of a LINAC depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electron, proton or ion.

It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission.

One can use a LINAC in the entry in the Synchrotron and one at out.

To use a small entrance LINAC, between him and synchrotron, one put an additional speed circuit in a stadium form.

The end LINAC can be reduced if one put more end LINACs.

See diagram below.

 

© 2008 Florian Ion TIBERIU-PETRESCU


p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0mm 0mm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: “Times New Roman”; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }

Basic Principle

Ionic engine (ion thruster) has 2 major advantages and 2 disadvantages compared with chemical propulsion; the impulse and energy per unit of fuel used are much higher; 1-the increased impulse generates a higher speed (velocity; so we can walk longer distances in a short time), 2-the high energy decreases fuel consumption and increase the autonomy of the ship; generate force and acceleration are very small; we can not defeat any forces of resistance to lodging by atmosphere and we have no chance to exceed gravitational forces – ship will not leave a planet (or fall on it) using the ion thruster (It required an additional motor). Vacuum ship acceleration is possible but only with very small acceleration.

Increasing more energy (and also the impulse) can reach the necessary forces and acceleration (Growth will need to be very high). Particles energy increased can be made with accelerators circular and or modern linear. Particles energy increased will be huge and in addition will need to grow and the flow of accelerated particles.

Immediate consequence of increasing particle energy will be the increasing of speeds and autonomy of the ship. Now we can achieve huge speeds in a very short time. The ship will pass through any atmosphere (including water) with great ease. The ship can take off or land directly.

Initially one can use to ship the old forms (the old design) which adapts and the accelerator(s).


Momentary, just see:




ufoevidence Old-Photos 1954-Sicily,Italy 1958-Trindade Island,Brazil 1967-Zanesville,Ohio,USA 1968-Cluj,Romania 1998-LakePowell,Utah,USA 2004-Melbourne,Australia 2004-Litchfield,Connecticut,USA 2005-Norwich,United Kingdom 2005-SaltRiverCanyon,Arizona,USA 2006-Alagamar,Brazil 2007-Green Bay,Wisconsin,USA

A Cyclotron Photo!

December 10, 1954 – Sicily, Italy

Il mio Segnalo






T a c h y o n s


Michelson_Interferometer_Green_Laser_Interference

Supernumerary_rainbow_03_contrast

cyclotron Picture Archive

A magnet in the synchrocyclotron at the Orsay proton therapy center


betatron What’s a BetaTron

betatron – definition of betatron by the Free Online Dictionary

betatron definition

Synchrotron

Synchrotrons are now mostly used for producing monochromatic high intensity X-ray beams; here, the synchrotron is the circular track, off which the beamlines branch.


Modern industrial-scale synchrotrons can be very large (here, Soleil near Paris)

FermiLab Tevatron is a 1 TeV collliding accelerator (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA). It accelerates protons and antiprotons to slightly less than 1 TeV of kinetic energy and collindes them together.


© 2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU – New Aircraft (New ionic or Beam Engines)

Galaxies

Gear Expert

January 15, 2011

Gear Expert.

 

 

© 2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU and Relly Victoria PETRESCU – Gears Design

SitiSitiSiti SitiSitiDettagli gearexpert.blogspot.com

Gears

 

 

 

Thesis: Contribuţii teoretice şi aplicative privind dinamica mecanismelor plane cu cuple superioare – Florian Ion Tiberiu-Petrescu.

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Contribuţii teoretice şi aplicative privind dinamica mecanismelor plane cu cuple superioare
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Florian Ion Tiberiu-Petrescu, Universitatea “Politehnica”, Bucureşti, 2008
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Tema tezei de doctorat este deosebit de importantă, utilă şi interesantă pentru că abordează o problematică complexă de mare actualitate privind dinamica mecanismelor plane cu came, tacheţi şi angrenaje cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele. Cercetările s-au efectuat pe baza unei vaste bibliografii, care cuprinde cele mai reprezentative lucrări în acest domeniu.
Conţinutul tezei se ridică la cele mai mari exigenţe impuse unei lucrări de doctorat şi are un înalt nivel ştiinţific. Rezultatele obţinute au fost interpretate corect şi au fost valorificate prin publicarea mai multor lucrări ştiinţifice în străinătate şi în ţară, lucrări ce se bucură de aprecierea specialiştilor din construcţia de maşini.
Teza conţine foarte multe elemente de originalitate ca: rezolvarea ecuaţiei diferenţiale a mişcării, modelul dinamic de integrare, analiza dinamică a mecanismului clasic de distribuţie, dinamica mecanismelor de distribuţie cu tachet translant, respectiv balansier, cu rolă sau plat, calculul randamentului mecanic al cuplei tachet-camă printr-o metodă absolut originală, determinarea randamentului angrenajelor cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele, randamentul instantaneu, randamentul mediu, calculul angrenajelor interioare, determinarea randamentului angrenajelor ţinând seama de gradul de acoperire, sinteza angrenajelor cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele pe baza randamentului în funcţionare, etc.
Concluziile la care a ajuns autorul sunt foarte importante atât din punct de vedere teoretic cât şi practic; astfel a stabilit că: tachetul cu rolă permite o mărire a turaţiei motorului până la o valoare dublă faţă de modelul clasic (cu tachet plat), angrenajele cu roţi dinţate pot lucra la turaţii şi momente de torsiune ridicate cu randamente mecanice foarte mari, randamentul cel mai mare se întâlneşte la angrenajele interioare cu roata (inel) având dantură interioară conducătoare, iar la angrenajele cu dantură exterioară randamentul este mai mare când roata mare este conducătoare; cu cât unghiul normal de angrenare scade, creşte gradul de acoperire şi odată cu el şi randamentul angrenării; randamentul mai creşte şi odată cu numărul de dinţi ai roţii conducătoare, etc.
Prin problematica abordată, teza de doctorat a dl. ing. Florian Ion PETRESCU, sub conducerea ştiinţifică a prof. dr. ing. Păun ANTONESCU, se înscrie în contextul sistematizării şi perfecţionării sistemelor mecanice existente, prin crearea de noi mecanisme adaptate cerinţelor moderne, ceea ce implică structuri topologice tot mai complexe.
Scopul lucrării este de a construi modele noi teoretice şi aplicative în analiza şi sinteza dinamică a mecanismelor cu came şi roţi dinţate plane. Teza de doctorat este structurată în trei părţi: prima parte prezintă dinamica mecanismelor plane cu came, tacheţi şi supape, partea a doua prezintă dinamica mecanismelor plane formate din angrenaje cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele, iar partea a treia conţine concluzii şi enumerarea contribuţiilor originale, cât şi anexe. Bibliografia este ataşată fiecărei părţi. 

Din prezentarea făcută se constată o multitudine de rezultate originale valoroase obţinute de dl. ing. Florian Ion PETRESCU.

Menţionăm câteva din aceste contribuţii:
Partea I-a:
1. Un model dinamic monomasic (cu un singur grad de libertate), translant, cu amortizare internă variabilă. Se determină amortizarea internă a sistemului şi ecuaţiile de mişcare.
2. Cinematica de precizie a mecanismelor de distribuţie, exemplificată pe mecanismul clasic cu camă rotativă şi tachet plat translant, bazată pe un model original de cinematică dinamică. Se determină exact randamentul mecanic, care nu are nici o legătură cu pierderile suplimentare prin frecare (se elimină astfel necesitatea determinării coeficientului de frecare).
3. Un model nou de distribuţie a forţelor şi vitezelor la tachetul translant cu rolă. Se demonstrează performanţele în raport cu modelele clasice.
4. O metodă nouă de determinare a forţelor şi vitezelor la mecanismul cu camă rotativă şi tachet balansier cu rolă. Determinarea randamentului mecanismului.
5. Metode aproximative şi de integrare directă a ecuaţiilor de mişcare.

Partea a II-a:
6. Model nou în dinamica mecanismelor plane formate din angrenaje cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele.
7. Determinarea randamentului unui angrenaj cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele pentru dinţii drepţi, în funcţie şi de gradul de acoperire al angrenajului.

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Abstract

 

Relly & Florian PETRESCU : CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF MECHANISMS WITH BARS AND GEARING | UniBook.

 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF MECHANISMS WITH BARS AND GEARING

Relly & Florian PETRESCU

Short description

Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements, which involve more complex topological structures. Modern industry, the practice of engineering design and manufacture increasingly rely more on scientific research results and practical. The processes of robotization of today define and influence the emergence of new industries, with applications in specific environmental conditions, handling of objects in outer space, and are leading teleoperator in disciplines such as medicine, automations, nuclear energetic, etc. In this context this paper attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic analysis and synthesis geometro – kinematic of mechanisms with bars and gearing.

Author Bio

PhD. Eng. Relly Victoria PETRESCU, Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest Polytechnic University), GDGI (Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics) Department, Bucharest, ROMANIA, Europe; PhD. Eng. Florian Ion PETRESCU, Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest Polytechnic University), TMR (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots) Department, Bucharest, ROMANIA, Europe.

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

 

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

 

 

 

Relly & Florian PETRESCU : CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF MECHANISMS WITH BARS AND GEARING | UniBook.

 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF MECHANISMS WITH BARS AND GEARING

Relly & Florian PETRESCU

Short description

Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements, which involve more complex topological structures. Modern industry, the practice of engineering design and manufacture increasingly rely more on scientific research results and practical. The processes of robotization of today define and influence the emergence of new industries, with applications in specific environmental conditions, handling of objects in outer space, and are leading teleoperator in disciplines such as medicine, automations, nuclear energetic, etc. In this context this paper attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic analysis and synthesis geometro – kinematic of mechanisms with bars and gearing.

Author Bio

PhD. Eng. Relly Victoria PETRESCU, Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest Polytechnic University), GDGI (Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics) Department, Bucharest, ROMANIA, Europe; PhD. Eng. Florian Ion PETRESCU, Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest Polytechnic University), TMR (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots) Department, Bucharest, ROMANIA, Europe.

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

 

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

http://www.unibook.com/Relly-%2526-Florian-PETRESCU/CONTRIBUTIONS-TO-THE-ANALYSIS-AND-SYNTHESIS-OF-MECHANISMS-WITH-BARS-AND-GEARING

 

 

This paper is a scientific view, uniform, general, comprehensive and unbiased of the main problems posed by mechanical systems, mobile, serial and parallel. It gives an overview, followed by geometric and kinematic study of the serial and parallel structures. It continues with an introduction in the dynamics these systems. At the serial systems are studied both direct and indirect kinematics, while at the parallel systems is studied only indirect kinematics (this being more useful). Presentation is closely linked of the basic methods of calculating the matrix, which are introduced step by step for a easy understanding of the each sequence.The book is divided into 14 chapters, who have been based on our courses, prepared for our students of the next

via Florian & Relly Petrescu : Mechanical Systems, Serial and Parallel, in movement | UniBook.