F l o r i a n P E T R E S C U\’ s B o o k s S t o r eThe Design of Gearings with High EfficiencyISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0A Short Book Description: Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements, which involve more complex topological structures. Modern industry, the practice of engineering design and manufacture increasingly rely more on scientific research results and practical. The processes

via The Efficiency of Gearings – THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY.

 


F l o r i a n   P E T R E S C U’ s   B o o k s   S t o r e

The Design of Gearings with High Efficiency

ISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0


A Short Book Description:

Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements, which involve more complex topological structures. Modern industry, the practice of engineering design and manufacture increasingly rely more on scientific research results and practical.

The processes of robotisation of today define and influence the emergence of new industries, with applications in specific environmental conditions, handling of objects in outer space, and are leading teleoperator in disciplines such as medicine, automations, nuclear energetic, etc.

In this context this paper attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings.

The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gear. The originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. The work is analyzing the influence of a few parameters concerning gear efficiency. These parameters are: z1 – the number of teeth for the primary wheel of gear; z2 – the number of teeth of the secondary wheel of gear; ?0 – the normal pressure angle on the divided circle; ? – the inclination angle. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms.

We begin with the right teeth (the toothed gear), with i=-4, once for z1 we shall take successively different values, rising from 8 teeth. One can see that for 8 teeth of the driving wheel the standard pressure angle, ?0=200, is too small to be used (it obtains a minimum pressure angle, ?m, negative and this fact is not admitted; see the first table). In the second table we shall diminish (in module) the value for the ratio of transmission, i, from 4 to 2. We will see how for a lower value of the number of teeth of the wheel 1, the standard pressure angle (a0=200) is too small and it will be necessary to increase it to a minimum value. For example, if z1=8, the necessary minimum value is a0=290 for an i=-4 (see the table 1) and a0=280 for an i=-2 (see the table 2). If z1=10, the necessary minimum pressure angle is a0=260 for i=-4 (see the table 1) and a0=250 for i=-2 (see the table 2). When the number of teeth of the wheel 1 increases, we can decrease the normal pressure angle, a0. We will see that for z1=90 it can take a less value for the normal pressure angle (for the pressure angle of reference), a0=80. In the table 3 we increases the module of i value (the ratio of transmission), from 2 to 6.

In the table 4, the teeth are bended (b?0). The module i takes now the value 2.

The efficiency (of the gear) increases when the number of teeth for the driving wheel 1, z1, increases, and when the pressure angle, ?0, diminishes; z2 and i12 have not so much influence about the efficiency value.

We can easily see that for the value ?0=200, the efficiency takes roughly the value ??0.89 for any values of the others parameters (this justifies the choice of this value, ?0=200, for the standard pressure angle of reference).

But the better efficiency may be obtained only for a ?0?200 (?0<200).

The pressure angle of reference, ?0, can be decreased, when in the same time, the number of teeth for the driving wheel 1, z1, increases, to increase the gears’ efficiency.

Contrary, when we desire to create a gear with a low z1 (for a less gauge), it will be necessary to increase the ?0 value, for maintaining a positive value for ?m (in this case the gear efficiency will be diminished).

When ? increases, the efficiency (?) increases too, but its growth is insignificant. We can see in the last part of the work, that in reality it (? increases) produces a decrease in yield.

The module of the gear, m, has not any influence on the gear’s efficiency value.

When ?0 is diminished one can take a higher normal module, for increasing the addendum of teeth, but the increase of the m at the same time with the increase of the z1 can lead to a greater gauge.

The gears’ efficiency (?) is really a function of ?0 and z1: ?=f(?0,z1); the two angles (?m and ?M) are just the intermediate parameters (intermediate variables).

For a good projection of the gear, it’s necessary a z1 and a z2 greater than 30-60; but this condition may increase the gauge of mechanism; when the numbers of teeth z1 and z2 beyond the 30 value, the efficiency of the gearing are greater, and the values of the two different efficiencies leveled; this can be a great advantage in transmissions, especially in planetary transmissions, where the moments may come from both directions; will result a better and more equilibrated functionality (But these are the subject of a future work).

In the second (and last) part the book presents shortly an original method to obtain the efficiency of the geared transmissions in function of the contact ratio. With the presented relations one can make the dynamic synthesis of the geared transmissions having in view increasing the efficiency of gearing mechanisms in work (the accuracy of calculations will be high).

One calculates the efficiency of a geared transmission, having in view the fact that at one moment there are several couples of teeth in contact, and not just one.

The start model has got four pairs of teeth in contact (4 couples) concomitantly.

The first couple of teeth in contact has the contact point i, defined by the ray ri1, and the pressure angle ai1; the forces which act at this point are: the motor force Fmi, perpendicular to the position vector ri1 at i and the force transmitted from the wheel 1 to the wheel 2 through the point i, Fti, parallel to the path of action and with the sense from the wheel 1 to the wheel 2, the transmitted force being practically the projection of the motor force on the path of action; the defined velocities are similar to the forces (having in view the original kinematics, or the precise kinematics adopted); the same parameters will be defined for the next three points of contact, j, k, l (see fig. 2).

The best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring; the minimum efficiency will be obtained when the drive wheel 1 of the internal gearing has external teeth. For the external gearing, the best efficiency is obtained when the bigger wheel is the drive wheel; when one decreases the normal angle a0, the contact ratio increases and the efficiency increases as well. The efficiency increases too, when the number of teeth of the drive wheel 1 increases (when z1 increases).

Generally we use gearings with teeth inclined (with bended teeth). For gears with bended teeth, the calculations show a decrease in yield when the inclination angle increases. For angles with inclination which not exceed 25 degree the efficiency of gearing is good (see the table 6). When the inclination angle (?) exceeds 25 degrees the gearing will suffer a significant drop in yield (see the tables 7 and 8).

The calculation relationships (33-35) are general (Have a general nature). They have the advantage that can be used with great precision in determining the efficiency of any type of gearings.

1 Introduction

In this paper the authors present an original method to calculating the efficiency of the gear.

The originality consists in the way of determination of the gear’s efficiency because one hasn’t used the friction forces of couple (this new way eliminates the classical method). One eliminates the necessity of determining the friction coefficients by different experimental methods as well. The efficiency determined by the new method is the same like the classical efficiency, namely the mechanical efficiency of the gear.

Some mechanisms work by pulses and are transmitting the movement from an element to another by pulses and not by friction. Gears work practically only by pulses. The component of slip or friction is practically the loss. Because of this the mechanical efficacy becomes practically the mechanical efficiency of gear.

The paper is analyzing the influence of a few parameters concerning gear efficiency. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms. Today, the gears are present every where in the mechanical’s world.


 

Author: Florian Ion TIBERIU-PETRESCU Company: UPB POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST TMR Department Residence: BUCHAREST – ROMANIA – EUROPE Websites:

dynamics.ro expertdyna Cars

Memorable Quote 1: Drivetrain Expert (Gear And Gearing Expert) Memorable Quote 2: Otto Engines Expert (Powertrain Expert)

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THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY

 

ISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0

THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY

 

ISBN 978-1-4467-9054-0 Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements; the gearing mechanisms are found today everywhere: in the industry of machinery construction, in energy industry, in aeronautics and aerospace, in electronics& Electrical, in oil industry, in mechatronics and robotics, etc. In this context this book attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings. The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gearing; the originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms; the best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring. Paperback, 32 pages $15.24 | or File Download, PDF Format $9.21


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Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements; the gearing mechanisms are found today everywhere: in the industry of machinery construction, in energy industry, in aeronautics and aerospace, in electronics& Electrical, in oil industry, in mechatronics and robotics, etc. In this context this book attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings. The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gearing; the originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms; the best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring.

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THE DESIGN OF GEARINGS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY

Development and diversification of machines and mechanisms with applications in all areas of scientific research requires new systematization and improvement of existing mechanical systems by creating new mechanisms adapted to the modern requirements; the gearing mechanisms are found today everywhere: in the industry of machinery construction, in energy industry, in aeronautics and aerospace, in electronics& Electrical, in oil industry, in mechatronics and robotics, etc. In this context this book attempts to bring a contribution to science and technology applied in the kinematic and dynamic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with gearings. The book presents an original method to determine the efficiency of the gearing; the originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. With the relations presented in this paper, one can synthesize the gear’s mechanisms; the best efficiency can be obtained with the internal gearing when the drive wheel 1 is the ring.

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“SISTEME MECANICE MOBILE SERIALE ŞI PARALELE” – autori: Florian PETRESCU si Relly PETRESCU, de la Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti.

Lucrarea reprezintă o viziune ştiinţifică, unitară, generală, cuprinzătoare şi echidistantă a principalelor probleme pe care le ridică sistemele mecanice, mobile, seriale şi paralele. Se face o prezentare generală, urmată de studiul geometro-cinematic separat, al structurilor seriale şi paralele. Se continuă cu o introducere în dinamica acestor sisteme. Structura sistemelor paralele este vizualizată pe scurt. La sistemele seriale se studiază atât cinematica directă cât şi cea indirectă, în vreme ce la sistemele paralele se urmăreşte numai cinematica indirectă (aceasta fiind mult mai utilă). Prezentarea metodelor de bază este strâns legată de calculul matricial, care este introdus pas cu pas pentru uşurarea înţelegerii fiecărei secvenţe.

Cartea este structurată în 14 capitole, care au avut ca bază de pornire cele 14 cursuri fundamentale pregătite pentru masteranzii de la disciplinele mecatronică, roboţi industriali, manipulatori, sudare automatizată, etc.

Lucrarea se adresează însă în egală măsură tuturor specialiştilor, şi viitorilor specialişti (studenţi) care lucrează în aceste domenii, sau au tangenţe cu aceste frumoase discipline: mecatronica, robotica, automatizarea proceselor. Ea poate fi un instrument preţios şi pentru proiectanţii (designerii) acestor sisteme, pentru cei care construiesc, achiziţionează, utilizează, sau întreţin sisteme mecanice mobile seriale sau paralele.

Pentru detalii apasati aici.

 

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New Aircraft (New ionic engines, or beam engines).

 

New Aircraft (New ionic engines, or beam engines)

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NEW AIRCRAFT

 

F.I. Petrescu1

1 Bucharest Polytechnic University, Bucharest, ROMANIA, petrescuflorian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Speaking about a new ionic engine means to speak about a new aircraft. The paper presents shortly the actual ionic engines (called ion thrusters) and the new ionic (pulse) engines proposed by the author. Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion. We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses pulses of positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core). Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy). We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel and power. One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine), it’ll use only the power (energy, which can be solar energy, nuclear energy, or both) and so we will remove the fuel. It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission. With a new ionic engine one builds a new aircraft, which can travel through water and. This new aircraft will can accelerate directly, without an additional combustion engine and without gravity assists from other planets.

 

Keywords: high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron, circular particle accelerator, new aircraft, new ionic engine


1. ION THRUSTER [1]

 

 

1.1. About the ion thruster

An ion thruster is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating ions. Ion thrusters are characterized by how they accelerate the ions, using either electrostatic or electromagnetic force. Electrostatic ion thrusters use the Coulomb Force and accelerate the ions in the direction of the electric field. Electromagnetic ion thrusters use the Lorentz Force to accelerate the ions. Note that the term “ion thruster” frequently denotes the electrostatic or gridded ion thrusters, only.

The thrust created in ion thrusters is very small compared to conventional chemical rockets, but a very high specific impulse, or propellant efficiency, is obtained.

Due to their relatively high power needs, given the specific power of power supplies, and the requirement of an environment void of other ionized particles, ion thrust propulsion currently is only practicable in outer space.

The first experiments with ion thrusters were carried out by Robert Goddard at Clark College from 1916-1917. The technique was recommended for near-vacuum conditions at high altitude, but thrust was demonstrated with ionized air streams at atmospheric pressure. The idea appeared again in Hermann Oberth‘s “Wege zur Raumschiffahrt” (Ways to Spaceflight), published in 1923.

A working ion thruster was built by Harold R. Kaufman in 1959 at the NASA Glenn facilities. It was similar to the general design of a gridded electrostatic ion thruster with mercury as its fuel. Suborbital tests of the engine followed during the 1960s and in 1964 the engine was sent into a suborbital flight aboard the Space Electric Rocket Test 1 (SERT 1). It successfully operated for the planned 31 minutes before falling back to Earth.

1.2. Hall effect thruster

The Hall effect thruster was studied independently in the U.S. and the USSR in the 1950s and 60s. However, the concept of a Hall thruster was only developed into an efficient propulsion device in the former Soviet Union, whereas in the U.S., scientists focused instead on developing gridded ion thrusters. Hall effect thrusters were operated on Soviet satellites since 1972. Until the 1990s they were mainly used for satellite stabilization in North-South and in East-West directions. Some 100-200 engines completed their mission on Soviet and Russian satellites until the late 1990s. Soviet thruster design was introduced to the West in 1992 after a team of electric propulsion specialists, under the support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, visited Soviet laboratories.

Ion thrusters utilize beams of ions (electrically charged atoms or molecules) to create thrust in accordance with Newton’s third law. The method of accelerating the ions varies, but all designs take advantage of the charge/mass ratio of the ions. This ratio means that relatively small potential differences can create very high exhaust velocities. This reduces the amount of reaction mass or fuel required, but increases the amount of specific power required compared to chemical rockets. Ion thrusters are therefore able to achieve extremely high specific impulses. The drawback of the low thrust is low spacecraft acceleration because the mass of current electric power units is directly correlated with the amount of power given. This low thrust makes ion thrusters unsuited for launching spacecraft into orbit, but they are ideal for in-space propulsion applications.

Hall effect thrusters accelerate ions with the use of an electric potential maintained between a cylindrical anode and a negatively charged plasma which forms the cathode. The bulk of the propellant (typically xenon or bismuth gas) is introduced near the anode, where it becomes ionised, and the ions are attracted towards the cathode, they accelerate towards and through it, picking up electrons as they leave to neutralize the beam and leave the thruster at high velocity.

The anode is at one end of a cylindrical tube, and in the center is a spike which is wound to produce a radial magnetic field between it and the surrounding tube. The ions are largely unaffected by the magnetic field, since they are too massive. However, the electrons produced near the end of the spike to create the cathode are far more affected and are trapped by the magnetic field, and held in place by their attraction to the anode. Some of the electrons spiral down towards the anode, circulating around the spike in a Hall current. When they reach the anode they impact the uncharged propellant and cause it to be ionised, before finally reaching the anode and closing the circuit.

1.3. Gridded electrostatic ion thrusters

Gridded electrostatic ion thrusters commonly utilize xenon gas. This gas has no charge and is ionized by bombarding it with energetic electrons. These electrons can be provided from a hot cathode filament and accelerated in the electrical field of the cathode fall to the anode (Kaufman type ion thruster). Alternatively, the electrons can be accelerated by the oscillating electric field induced by an alternating magnetic field of a coil, which results in a self-sustaining discharge and omits any cathode (radiofrequency ion thruster).

The positively charged ions are extracted by an extraction system consisting of 2 or 3 multi-aperture grids. After entering the grid system via the plasma sheath the ions are accelerated due to the potential difference between the first and second grid (named screen and accelerator grid) to the final ion energy of typically 1-2 keV, thereby generating the thrust.

Ion thrusters emit a beam of positive charged xenon ions only. In order to avoid the charging-up of the spacecraft another cathode, placed near the engine, emits additional electrons (basically the electron current is the same as the ion current) into the ion beam. This also prevents the beam of ions from returning to the spacecraft and thereby cancelling the thrust.

Gridded electrostatic ion thruster research (past/present):

NASA Solar electric propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR)

NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS)

High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP)

EADS Radio-Frequency Ion Thruster (RIT)

Dual-Stage 4-Grid (DS4G)

1.4. Field Emission Electric Propulsion

Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) thrusters use a very simple system of accelerating liquid metal ions to create thrust. Most designs use either caesium or indium as the propellant. The design consists of a small propellant reservoir that stores the liquid metal, a very small slit that the liquid flows through, and then the accelerator ring. Caesium and indium are used due to their high atomic weights, low ionization potentials, and low melting points. Once the liquid metal reaches the inside of the slit in the emitter, an electric field applied between the emitter and the accelerator ring causes the liquid metal to become unstable and ionize. This creates a positive ion, which can then be accelerated in the electric field created by the emitter and the accelerator ring. These positively charged ions are then neutralized by an external source of electrons in order to prevent charging of the spacecraft hull.

1.5. Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

Pulsed Inductive Thrusters (PIT) use pulses of thrust instead of one continuous thrust, and have the ability to run on power levels in the order of Megawatts (MW). PITs consist of a large coil encircling a cone shaped tube that emits the propellant gas. Ammonia is the gas commonly used in PIT engines. For each pulse of thrust the PIT gives, a large charge first builds up in a group of capacitors behind the coil and is then released. This creates a current that moves circularly. The current then creates a magnetic field in the outward radial direction (Br), which then creates a current in the ammonia gas that has just been released in the opposite direction of the original current. This opposite current ionizes the ammonia and these positively charged ions are accelerated away from the PIT engine due to the electric field crossing with the magnetic field Br, which is due to the Lorentz Force.

1.6. Magnetoplasmadynamic

Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters and Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator (LiLFA) thrusters use roughly the same idea with the LiLFA thruster building off of the MPD thruster. Hydrogen, argon, ammonia, and nitrogen gas can be used as propellant. The gas first enters the main chamber where it is ionized into plasma by the electric field between the anode and the cathode. This plasma then conducts electricity between the anode and the cathode. This new current creates a magnetic field around the cathode which crosses with the electric field, thereby accelerating the plasma due to the Lorentz Force. The LiLFA thruster uses the same general idea as the MPD thruster, except for two main differences. The first difference is that the LiLFA uses lithium vapor, which has the advantage of being able to be stored as a solid. The other difference is that the cathode is replaced by multiple smaller cathode rods packed into a hollow cathode tube. The cathode in the MPD thruster is easily corroded due to constant contact with the plasma. In the LiLFA thruster the lithium vapor is injected into the hollow cathode and is not ionized to its plasma form/corrode the cathode rods until it exits the tube. The plasma is then accelerated using the same Lorentz Force.

1.7. Electrodeless Plasma Thrusters

Electrodeless Plasma Thrusters have two unique features, the removal of the anode and cathode electrodes and the ability to throttle the engine. The removal of the electrodes takes away the factor of erosion which limits lifetime on other ion engines. Neutral gas is first ionized by electromagnetic waves and then transferred to another chamber where it is accelerated by an oscillating electric and magnetic field, also known as the ponderomotive force. This separation of the ionization and acceleration stage give at the engine the ability to throttle the speed of propellant flow, which then changes the thrust magnitude and specific impulse values [1].

1.8. Plasma Micro Thruster

In the picture number 1 one presents „A Plasma Micro Thruster” Schematic and Prototype (see the figure 1, and [2]).

 

 








Fig. 1: Plasma Micro Thruster, Schematic and Prototype


2. THE HiPEP ENGINE

 

2.1. Powerful ion engine relies on microwaves

A powerful new ion propulsion system has been successfully ground-tested by NASA. The High Power Electric Propulsion ion engine trial marks the “first measurable milestone” for the ambitious $3 billion Project Prometheus, says director Alan Newhouse.

The HiPEP engine is the first tested propulsion technology with the potential power and longevity to thrust spacecraft as far as Jupiter without gravity assists from other planets.

These assists involve slingshot manoeuvres around planets and can boost the speed of craft significantly. But they require specific planetary alignments, meaning suitable launch dates are rare.

In contrast, a probe powered by a HiPEP engine could launch any time. One goal of Project Prometheus, formerly called the Nuclear Systems Initiative, is to launch a spacecraft towards Jupiter by 2011. The flight would take at least eight years.

The key elements of the HiPEP engine are a high exhaust velocity, a microwave-based method for producing ions that performs for longer than existing technologies and a rectangular design that can more easily be scaled up than circular ones.

Spacecraft are increasingly being built with ion engines rather than engines that burn rocket fuel. This is because ion engines produce more power for a given amount of propellant, and provide a smooth output rather than intermittent spurts.

“Jupiter is such a far away target. Using a chemical system, you just couldn’t do it,” says John Foster, one of the principal creators of the engine at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

The HiPEP engine differs from earlier ion engines, such as that powering NASA’s Deep Space One mission, because the xenon ions are produced using a combination of microwaves and spinning magnets. Previously the electrons required were provided by a cathode. Using microwaves significantly reduces the wear and tear on the engine by avoiding any contact between the speeding ions and the electron source.

2.2. Nuclear fission

A Japanese asteroid-chasing spacecraft is already using microwave-based technology to produce ions, but Hayabusa uses a small device that could not produce enough power to fly to Jupiter. The HiPEP engine is currently capable of 12 kilowatts of power but its output will be boosted to at least 50 kW for the Jupiter mission.

The rectangular cross section of the HiPEP engine will make this easier, as it can be expanded along one of its sides. A circular engine would have to be rebuilt, says NASA.

Nonetheless, other researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, are working on a cylindrical high-power ion engine, also for the Prometheus project. But Newhouse notes that building a powerful, long-lasting propulsion system is just “one of the pieces we need to get to Jupiter”. The electricity for the ion engine is slated to come from on-board nuclear fission reactor. This part of the Prometheus Project is just beginning, with safety considerations, the miniaturisation of the reactor and the identity of the fuel all needing to be decided.


3. NEW IONIC OR BEAM PULSE ENGINE

 

By this paper the author propose a new pulse engine which works with beam or ionic (ionic beam) pulses. With a new ionic engine one builds a new aircraft (a new ship). The principal characteristic of this kind of engine is the high power (energy) which accelerates the beam at very high energy, in circular accelerators, in modern linear accelerators (LINAC), or in both. One can use accelerators similar with the static physics accelerators (synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron).

Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion. We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy; see the figure 3) . Sure that the difficulties will arise from design, but they need to be resolved step by step. We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel. One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine).

A linear particle accelerator (also called a LINAC) is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. This sort of particle accelerator has many applications. It used recently as to an injector into a higher energy synchrotron at a dedicated experimental particle physics laboratory. In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core).

The design of a LINAC depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electron, proton or ion.

It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission (figure 3).

One can use a LINAC in the entry in the Synchrotron and one at out (figure 2). To use a small entrance LINAC, between him and synchrotron, one put an additional speed circuit in a stadium form (fig. 2).

The end LINAC can be reduced if one put more end LINACs. See diagram below (fig. 2.) © 2008 Florian Ion TIBERIU-PETRESCU

 

 









Fig. 2: A high energy synchrotron schema

 

 

 

 

 

 









Fig. 3: Some flying synchrotron prototypes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 






CONCLUSION

 

Speaking about a new ionic engine means to speak about a new aircraft.

The paper presents shortly the actual ionic engines (called ion thrusters) and the new ionic (pulse) engines proposed by the author. Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion.

We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses pulses of positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV).

Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy). We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel and power. One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine), it’ll use only the power (energy, which can be solar energy, nuclear energy, or both) and so we will remove the fuel.

A linear particle accelerator (also called a LINAC) is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. This sort of particle accelerator has many applications. It used recently as to an injector into a higher energy synchrotron at a dedicated experimental particle physics laboratory. In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core).

The design of a LINAC depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electron, proton or ion.

It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission (figure 3).

One can use a LINAC in the entry in the Synchrotron and one at out (figure 2). To use a small entrance LINAC, between him and synchrotron, one put an additional speed circuit in a stadium form (fig. 2).

With a new ionic engine one builds a new aircraft, which can travel through water and. This new aircraft will can accelerate directly, without an additional combustion engine and without gravity assists from other planets

Ionic engine (ion thruster) has 2 major advantages (a) and 2 disadvantages (b) compared with chemical propulsion; (a) the impulse and energy per unit of fuel used are much higher; 1-the increased impulse generates a higher speed (velocity; so we can walk longer distances in a short time), 2-the high energy decreases fuel consumption and increase the autonomy of the ship; (b) generate force and acceleration are very small; we can not defeat any forces of resistance to lodging by atmosphere and we have no chance to exceed gravitational forces – ship will not leave a planet (or fall on it) using the ion thruster (It required an additional motor). Vacuum ship acceleration is possible but only with very small acceleration.

Increasing more the energy (and also the impulse) can reach the necessary forces and acceleration (Growth will need to be very high, 100 PeV-1000 PeV). Particles energy increased can be made with accelerators circular and or modern linear. Particles energy increased will be huge and in addition will need to grow and the flow of accelerated particles (and the tor diameter; if one increases enough the flow, the necessary energy will be 10 GeV-10 TeV).

Immediate consequence of increasing particle energy will be the increasing of speeds and autonomy of the ship. Now we can achieve huge speeds in a very short time. The ship will pass through any atmosphere (including water) with great ease. The ship can take off or land directly.

Initially one can use to ship the old forms (the old design) which adapts and the accelerator(s).

 

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, net,

[2] Dan Tanna, Technology today, edit on 10-6-2008, a net Link.

New Aircraft (New Ship)

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Astronomers discover distant solar system with five planets Washington Post – 11/7/2007


Now, it’s our time to conquer the space! We can do it, but not with our “old space waggons”.
We must build new aircrafts.

First step! Build a 7GeV flying circular accelerator; this will be a small new aircraft (ship) and the new engine.


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New (ionic or beam) engine => New Aircaft
© 2008 Florian Ion PETRESCU |
PhD Eng. at TMR, UPB, ROMANIA|

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(The Copyright Law, March 01 1989, U.S. Copyright Office,

Library of Congress, Washington DC, 20559-6000 202-707-3000)

UFO (OZN) = A Flying Cyclotron? | © 2008 Ion PETRESCU – New (ionic, or beam) engines => New Aircraft (ship) | © 2008 Florian PETRESCU

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(The Copyright Law, March 01 1989, U.S. Copyright Office,

Library of Congress, Washington DC, 20559-6000 202-707-3000)

________________________________________________________

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Ionic engine (ion thruster, which accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is about 10 times more effective than classic system based on combustion. We can still improve the efficiency of 10-50 times if one uses positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; the efficiency can easily grow for 1000 times if the positive ions will be accelerated in a high energy synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). Future (ionic) engine will have mandatory a circular particle accelerator (high or very high energy). Sure that the difficulties will arise from design, but they need to be resolved step by step. We can thus increase the speed and autonomy of the ship using a less quantity of fuel.

One can use synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light, high intensity beams), like high intensity (X-ray or Gamma ray) radiation, as well. In this case will be a beam engine (not an ionic engine).

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A linear particle accelerator (also called a LINAC) is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. This sort of particle accelerator has many applications. It used recently as to an injector into a higher energy synchrotron at a dedicated experimental particle physics laboratory. In this, the big classic synchrotron is reduced to a ring surface (magnetic core). The design of a LINAC depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electron, proton or ion.

It proposes using a powerful LINAC at the exit of synchrotron (especially when one accelerates electrons) to not lose energy by photons premature emission.

One can use a LINAC in the entry in the Synchrotron and one at out.

To use a small entrance LINAC, between him and synchrotron, one put an additional speed circuit in a stadium form.

The end LINAC can be reduced if one put more end LINACs.

See diagram below.

 

© 2008 Florian Ion TIBERIU-PETRESCU


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Basic Principle

Ionic engine (ion thruster) has 2 major advantages and 2 disadvantages compared with chemical propulsion; the impulse and energy per unit of fuel used are much higher; 1-the increased impulse generates a higher speed (velocity; so we can walk longer distances in a short time), 2-the high energy decreases fuel consumption and increase the autonomy of the ship; generate force and acceleration are very small; we can not defeat any forces of resistance to lodging by atmosphere and we have no chance to exceed gravitational forces – ship will not leave a planet (or fall on it) using the ion thruster (It required an additional motor). Vacuum ship acceleration is possible but only with very small acceleration.

Increasing more energy (and also the impulse) can reach the necessary forces and acceleration (Growth will need to be very high). Particles energy increased can be made with accelerators circular and or modern linear. Particles energy increased will be huge and in addition will need to grow and the flow of accelerated particles.

Immediate consequence of increasing particle energy will be the increasing of speeds and autonomy of the ship. Now we can achieve huge speeds in a very short time. The ship will pass through any atmosphere (including water) with great ease. The ship can take off or land directly.

Initially one can use to ship the old forms (the old design) which adapts and the accelerator(s).


Momentary, just see:




ufoevidence Old-Photos 1954-Sicily,Italy 1958-Trindade Island,Brazil 1967-Zanesville,Ohio,USA 1968-Cluj,Romania 1998-LakePowell,Utah,USA 2004-Melbourne,Australia 2004-Litchfield,Connecticut,USA 2005-Norwich,United Kingdom 2005-SaltRiverCanyon,Arizona,USA 2006-Alagamar,Brazil 2007-Green Bay,Wisconsin,USA

A Cyclotron Photo!

December 10, 1954 – Sicily, Italy

Il mio Segnalo






T a c h y o n s


Michelson_Interferometer_Green_Laser_Interference

Supernumerary_rainbow_03_contrast

cyclotron Picture Archive

A magnet in the synchrocyclotron at the Orsay proton therapy center


betatron What’s a BetaTron

betatron – definition of betatron by the Free Online Dictionary

betatron definition

Synchrotron

Synchrotrons are now mostly used for producing monochromatic high intensity X-ray beams; here, the synchrotron is the circular track, off which the beamlines branch.


Modern industrial-scale synchrotrons can be very large (here, Soleil near Paris)

FermiLab Tevatron is a 1 TeV collliding accelerator (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA). It accelerates protons and antiprotons to slightly less than 1 TeV of kinetic energy and collindes them together.


© 2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU – New Aircraft (New ionic or Beam Engines)

Galaxies

Gear Expert

January 15, 2011

Gear Expert.

 

 

© 2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU and Relly Victoria PETRESCU – Gears Design

SitiSitiSiti SitiSitiDettagli gearexpert.blogspot.com

Gears

 

 

 

V Engines Design

January 15, 2011

V Engines Design.

 

V Engines

Otto’s Engines

V Engines Design

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V Engine Design

ABSTRACT:

V engines in a characteristic aside, their reply kinematics-dynamic (operating in a dynamic viewpoint) is closely linked to constructive parameters of the engine, especially the constructive angle. For this reason, as generally constructive value angle was chosen randomly, after various technical requirements constructive or otherwise, inherited or calculated by various factors (more or less essential), but never got to discuss crucial factor (which takes account of the intimate physiology of the mechanism) angle that is constructive with his immediate influence on the overall dynamics of the mechanism, the actual dynamics of the mechanism with the main engine in the V suffered, the noise and vibration are generally higher compared with the similar engines in line. This paper aims to make a major contribution to remedy this problem so that the engine in V can be optimally designed and its dynamic behavior in the operation to become blameless, higher than that of similar engines in line. Theoretical calculations are difficult and complex, but the alteration constructive required of them is simple, consisting of the imposition of a list of constructive values of the angle alpha from which you can select the most convenient for each engine builder in V.

 

  1. INTRODUCTION

Kinematics and dynamic synthesis of V engines can be done according to the constructive alpha angle (a). This constructive angle alpha (see Figure 1) was elected in generally follow different criteria or design requirements (it is determined by the number of cylinders and the condition for obtaining the ignitions uniformly distributed). This work proposes aggregating this angle after rigorous kinematics-dynamic criteria, so that the V engine obtained works silently, with vibration and noise much lower. It is even mainly disadvantage of a motor in V namely that it works with higher vibrations compared with a same power engine in line [1, 6-12].

The authors have studied this works for several years together with a collective joint research (UPB-Autobuzul plant) and dynamic behavior of the V engines [6-8], the level of vibration and noise produced, the level of vibration transmitted inside the vehicle, the possibility of limiting them through various solutions of gripping and containment of the engine. Results were good but not very good. After similar measurements done on other types of engines it was decided the use of engines in line, much quieter than the V. Meanwhile engines have improved but also international standards that limit vibration and noise levels have become more demanding. The engine in V has many fans, it is more compact, more dynamic, more robust, stronger, and higher operating efficiency compared to similar engines in line. But its fans are not only racing fans, motor and habit, there are a wide audience of consumers who want only cars equipped with nerve in V. As to conciliate them well and those who make rules to limit emissions of cars, it was thought that paper aims to provide an equitable solution regarding engines in V.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 












Fig. 1


  1. THE BASIC IDEA

After decades of work in the mechanisms and machinery field, through experience, I noticed an interesting fact. At the engines in line forces and velocities transmission is normal from the driver (motor) shaft (from the crank shaft) to the pistons (through the rods), and vive versa (in the engine times). The engine in V transmission forces and velocities between elements is forced and unequal regardless of the meaning of transmission (from crank to pistons or from pistons to crank). Dynamics imposed to the main piston is one, and the secondary piston is required other, so that dynamic speeds (actual speeds required) differ, and with them and pistons to crank feedback (to crank shaft), as each would require another main shaft speed. If that’s a pair of pistons, for more pairs of pistons jerk resultant operation will be more and more powerful. Obvious solution is to optimize the dynamic of each pair of pistons in hand. This optimization was based on dynamic coefficients of each piston. Dynamic coefficient of a piston showing the actual crank angular velocity varies compared to required average angular velocity imposed by the motor shaft rotation speed. This variation [3, 4] is due to several factors, kinematics and dynamic, being itself a function and of engine constructive parameters.

The usual mechanisms have a single dynamic factor (coefficient), as is the case and in-line engines.

At the engine in V appear two dynamic factors imposed to the crank (and to the crank shaft) by the two pistons linked together (secondary piston rod link to the main piston rod; see the figure 1). The two dynamic factors differ among themselves and changes their values permanently depending on the crank angle position (crank shaft position).

This indicates that each piston (the primary and secondary) tries to impose its dynamic to the main shaft, so that the end result is an operation to struggle, since the two sets of pistons shoot one at one side and the other somewhere else.

The possible solution (unique solution) is matching the two dynamic factors. More specifically to write a mathematical relationship to match the main piston (main engine) dynamic coefficient expression with that of the secondary piston (secondary motor) (Now you can see that engine in V is built of two engines merged, see the fig. 1). Relations that results are quite complicated [5].

Optimization based on obtained relationship can be made in several ways. The most natural seems to be the optimization parameters in view of the engine builders of the V, particularly based on constructive angle alpha, which appears twice in the cinematic scheme of an engine in V: first he is mounting angle formed by the two axes of the two pistons coupled (angle formed by the axis of the main piston guide axis with the secondary piston guide axis); and the second time this item (constructive angle) appears on the element 2 (the rod of the main piston) between the two arms of the element 2 (AB and AC).

  1. SYNTHESIS OF THE ENGINE IN V

3.1. Presentation

In figure 1 is shown a V engine cinematic scheme.

The crank 1 rotates counterclockwise sense with angular velocity w and acts the rod 2 which moves the main piston 3 along the axis DB; the crank 1 acts and the rod 4 which in turn push or pull the piston 5 along the axis DD. Hence the constructive angle a between the two axes DB and DD. The same angle a consists of two arms of the rods 2; the first arm has a length l, and the second has the length a; this length a, plus the length b of the rods 4 must recompose the length of the first rods, l (a+b=l).

Driving force of the crank Fm is perpendicular to the crank arm r, in A. A part of it (FBm) is transmitted to the first arm of the connecting rods 2 (along l) towards the main piston 3. The second part of the driving force (FCm) is forwarded to the secondary piston 5, by the second arm of the first rod (along a).

3.2. Forces and velocities

A part x of the drive force Fm is transmitted towards the first piston (the element 3) and another part of it y is forwarded through the second piston (the element 5); sum of two parts x and y is 1 or 100% taken as a percentage.

The dynamic velocities have the same direction with forces [3-5], unlike the kinematic velocities imposed by the coupling links.

From the element 2 (the first arm of the first rod) forwarded through the main piston (the element 3) the force FB and the velocity vBD.

The kinematic velocity (imposed by linkages) of the point B has the known value vB [5], generally different from the dynamic value vBD. To force the main piston has a velocity equal to the dynamic (the real velocity) incorporate the dynamic coefficient DB, (DB=x.cos2β with vBD=DB.vB), so the dynamic speed is equal to the product between the cinematic velocity and dynamic coefficient DB.

The driving velocity (with the same direction as the driving force and the same sense with this) is given by the relation (vm=r.w).

In C, FCm and vCm are projected in FCn and vCn. They in turn are projected in D (on the DD axis) in the components FD and vD (dynamic velocity of the second piston). The cinematic (classic) velocity has another expression, D. Now one introduces the second dynamic coefficient (from the second piston), DD [5], (where vD=DD.D).

3.3. Determination of the dynamic coefficient D

The mechanism dynamic coefficient D is imposed to all gear and influences its function varying the crank rotation speed (the crank shaft rotation velocity). Any mechanism must take practical only one dynamic factor, D.

To the engines in V the real dynamic coefficient is the result of a random momentary compromise between the two different dynamic coefficients imposed by the two pistons. For this reason the overall functioning of the V engine loud. The ideal solution (right) is obviously bringing the two dynamic factors to around or possibly even equal values. To this end were the two dynamic factors matched, to see what solutions exist to solve the obtained equation ina. The obtained expression is complex and has many variables (the various builder parameters of the engine in V). It sought an analytical synthesis using a complex computer program, by finding of the system alpha general solutions, regardless of the values of others constructive parameters, so that dynamic factors present equal values, and the engine so constructed to operate high efficiency without shocks and vibrations, without noise and with reduced noxious emissions, achieved with high power and lower fuel consumption. The cinematic chain composed of crankshaft, two pistons and two rods should function normally.


 

Fig. 2







Fig. 3 Fig. 4

  1. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

Analysis of dynamic system revealed a range of values for angle alpha that the theory exposed are likely to lead to the synthesis of V-optimal engine (see the table 1) [5].

For some constructive parameters randomly taken (r=0.01 [m], l=0.1 [m], a=0.03 [m], b=0.07 [m]) and for a chosen speed of motor shaft (n=5000 [r/m]), it obtains three different diagrams for the displacement and acceleration of the pistons, corresponding to three alpha angles chosen randomly (50, 750 and 950), (see the figures 2-4).

Value of five degrees are at the beach of values indicated as appropriate, so that acceleration peaks hardly exceed the value of 1000 [m/s2] to both pistons (see the figure 2).

Diagrams in figures 3 and 4 are somewhat similar (but not identical) and present relevant cases also, even if the acceleration peaks have increased at about 3500 [m/s2] for the secondary piston and approximately 30,000 [m/s2] for the main piston. The angles of 75 and 95 degrees can also be used (at least for the indicated constructive parameters), to take into account and ignition requirements uniformly distributed.

A V-engine which reaching local at the primary piston a peak of acceleration of 30000 [m/s2] to a motor shaft speed of 5000 [r/m] (it comes only a local impact) will work similar to engines in line but the power and efficiency higher.

However the use for alpha of constructive values shown in the table 1 may lead to the construction of a V engine quieter than the one in line.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 5

  1. CONCLUSIONS

SPECIFICATIONS: Acceleration diagrams presented were constructed based on an original method; they are the result of complex calculations with dynamic accelerations and dynamic coefficients which contain the vibrations and pulses; the relationships of calculation can not present classical accelerations known!

A-When shocks are very small, diagrams show even the accelerations.

b-When the shocks are visible the diagrams show the accelerations and their peaks.

c-When the shocks are large or very large, the diagrams will present only the shocks; in this case the accelerations overlapping shocks; accelerations are lower than the shocks and no longer can see (these cases but would not be desirable).

With the values in the table of constructive angle alpha can synthesize a quieter engine in V, regardless of the values of other constructive parameters of the engine.

A first observation arising from reading the values indicated for optimal alpha angle from the table, is that the values close to 90 degrees aren’t present, and in general for these values design software looks a worse dynamics of engine in V. But that these values are used specifically to build engines in V, values determined by the number of cylinders and the condition for obtaining the ignitions uniformly distributed.

For the alpha values who do not appear in table, the built engine works with very large shocks which very difficult can be isolated even with the most modern rubber pads so that vibrations are felt in the vehicle interior, bringing with them uncomfortable and insecure amplified and by the unnatural noises produced by shock.

An important observation would be that today are used “new cinematic schemas of engines in V” (see the figure 5) which to eliminate the vibrations have a single piston mounted on a spindle maneton and have inclined the axes first to right the second to left to give the appearance of the engine in V. It’s a pseudo-engine in V and the added efficiency disappears. The cylinders capacity should be increased to mimic the engine power in V, but also increases fuel consumption.

In this way, and the cylinders in line can be considered an engine in V with alpha of 0 degrees and boxer cylinders may be considered a V engine with alpha of 180 degrees.

REFERENCES

[1] GRUNWALD B., Teoria, calculul şi construcţia motoarelor pentru autovehicule rutiere. Editura didacticã şi pedagogică, Bucureşti, 1980.

[2] Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., Câteva elemente privind îmbunătăţirea designului mecanismului motor, Proceedings of 8th National Symposium on GTD, Vol. I, p. 353-358, Brasov, 2003.

[3] Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., An original internal combustion engine, Proceedings of 9th International Symposium SYROM, Vol. I, p. 135-140, Bucharest, 2005.

[4] Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., Determining the mechanical efficiency of Otto engine’s mechanism, Proceedings of International Symposium, SYROM 2005, Vol. I, p. 141-146, Bucharest, 2005.

[5] Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., V Engine Design, Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Graphics and Design, ICGD 2009, Cluj-Napoca, 2009.


[6]. FRĂŢILĂ, Gh., SOTIR, D., PETRESCU, F., PETRESCU, V., ş.a. Cercetări privind transmisibilitatea vibraţiilor motorului la cadrul şi caroseria automobilului. În a IV-a Conferinţă de Motoare, Automobile, Tractoare şi Maşini Agricole, CONAT-matma, Braşov, 1982, Vol. I, p. 379-388.

[7]. MARINCAŞ, D., SOTIR, D., PETRESCU, F., PETRESCU, V., ş.a. Rezultate experimentale privind îmbunătăţirea izolaţiei fonice a cabinei autoutilitarei TV-14. În a IV-a Conferinţă de Motoare, Automobile, Tractoare şi Maşini Agricole, CONAT-matma, Braşov, 1982, Vol. I, p. 389-398.

[8]. FRĂŢILĂ, Gh., MARINCAŞ, D., BEJAN, N., FRĂŢILĂ, M., PETRESCU, F., PETRESCU, R., RĂDULESCU, I. Contributions a l’amelioration de la suspension du groupe moteur-transmission. În buletinul Universităţii din Braşov, Seria A, Mecanică aplicată, Vol. XXVIII, 1986, p. 117-123.

[9]. Fjoseph L. Stout – Ford Motor Co., I. Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results. In SAE 2001 Noise & Vibration Conference & Exposition, USA, 2001-01-1595, April 2001.

[10]. D. Taraza, “Accuracy Limits of IMEP Determination from Crankshaft Speed Measurements,” SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines 111, 689-697, 2002.

[11]. FROELUND, K., S.G. FRITZ, and B. SMITH., Ranking Lubricating Oil Consumption of Different Power Assemblies on an EMD 16-645E Locomotive Diesel Engine. Presented at and published in the Proceedings of the 2004 CIMAC Conference, Kyoto, Japan, June 2004.

[12]. Leet, J.A., S. Simescu, K. Froelund, L.G. Dodge, and C.E. Roberts Jr., Emissions Solutions for 2007 and 2010 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines. Presented at the SAE World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, March 2004. SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0124 , 2004.

Authors:

Florian Ion Petrescu, PhD. Eng. Lecturer at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, TMR Department (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots Department), petrescuflorian@yahoo.com, 0214029632;

Relly Victoria Petrescu, PhD. Eng., Lecturer at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, GDGI Department (Department of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics), petrescurelly@yahoo.com, 0214029136.

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©2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU – V Engine Design

Otto Engine Design

Cams Dynamics

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Thesis: Contribuţii teoretice şi aplicative privind dinamica mecanismelor plane cu cuple superioare – Florian Ion Tiberiu-Petrescu.

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Contribuţii teoretice şi aplicative privind dinamica mecanismelor plane cu cuple superioare
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Florian Ion Tiberiu-Petrescu, Universitatea “Politehnica”, Bucureşti, 2008
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Tema tezei de doctorat este deosebit de importantă, utilă şi interesantă pentru că abordează o problematică complexă de mare actualitate privind dinamica mecanismelor plane cu came, tacheţi şi angrenaje cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele. Cercetările s-au efectuat pe baza unei vaste bibliografii, care cuprinde cele mai reprezentative lucrări în acest domeniu.
Conţinutul tezei se ridică la cele mai mari exigenţe impuse unei lucrări de doctorat şi are un înalt nivel ştiinţific. Rezultatele obţinute au fost interpretate corect şi au fost valorificate prin publicarea mai multor lucrări ştiinţifice în străinătate şi în ţară, lucrări ce se bucură de aprecierea specialiştilor din construcţia de maşini.
Teza conţine foarte multe elemente de originalitate ca: rezolvarea ecuaţiei diferenţiale a mişcării, modelul dinamic de integrare, analiza dinamică a mecanismului clasic de distribuţie, dinamica mecanismelor de distribuţie cu tachet translant, respectiv balansier, cu rolă sau plat, calculul randamentului mecanic al cuplei tachet-camă printr-o metodă absolut originală, determinarea randamentului angrenajelor cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele, randamentul instantaneu, randamentul mediu, calculul angrenajelor interioare, determinarea randamentului angrenajelor ţinând seama de gradul de acoperire, sinteza angrenajelor cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele pe baza randamentului în funcţionare, etc.
Concluziile la care a ajuns autorul sunt foarte importante atât din punct de vedere teoretic cât şi practic; astfel a stabilit că: tachetul cu rolă permite o mărire a turaţiei motorului până la o valoare dublă faţă de modelul clasic (cu tachet plat), angrenajele cu roţi dinţate pot lucra la turaţii şi momente de torsiune ridicate cu randamente mecanice foarte mari, randamentul cel mai mare se întâlneşte la angrenajele interioare cu roata (inel) având dantură interioară conducătoare, iar la angrenajele cu dantură exterioară randamentul este mai mare când roata mare este conducătoare; cu cât unghiul normal de angrenare scade, creşte gradul de acoperire şi odată cu el şi randamentul angrenării; randamentul mai creşte şi odată cu numărul de dinţi ai roţii conducătoare, etc.
Prin problematica abordată, teza de doctorat a dl. ing. Florian Ion PETRESCU, sub conducerea ştiinţifică a prof. dr. ing. Păun ANTONESCU, se înscrie în contextul sistematizării şi perfecţionării sistemelor mecanice existente, prin crearea de noi mecanisme adaptate cerinţelor moderne, ceea ce implică structuri topologice tot mai complexe.
Scopul lucrării este de a construi modele noi teoretice şi aplicative în analiza şi sinteza dinamică a mecanismelor cu came şi roţi dinţate plane. Teza de doctorat este structurată în trei părţi: prima parte prezintă dinamica mecanismelor plane cu came, tacheţi şi supape, partea a doua prezintă dinamica mecanismelor plane formate din angrenaje cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele, iar partea a treia conţine concluzii şi enumerarea contribuţiilor originale, cât şi anexe. Bibliografia este ataşată fiecărei părţi. 

Din prezentarea făcută se constată o multitudine de rezultate originale valoroase obţinute de dl. ing. Florian Ion PETRESCU.

Menţionăm câteva din aceste contribuţii:
Partea I-a:
1. Un model dinamic monomasic (cu un singur grad de libertate), translant, cu amortizare internă variabilă. Se determină amortizarea internă a sistemului şi ecuaţiile de mişcare.
2. Cinematica de precizie a mecanismelor de distribuţie, exemplificată pe mecanismul clasic cu camă rotativă şi tachet plat translant, bazată pe un model original de cinematică dinamică. Se determină exact randamentul mecanic, care nu are nici o legătură cu pierderile suplimentare prin frecare (se elimină astfel necesitatea determinării coeficientului de frecare).
3. Un model nou de distribuţie a forţelor şi vitezelor la tachetul translant cu rolă. Se demonstrează performanţele în raport cu modelele clasice.
4. O metodă nouă de determinare a forţelor şi vitezelor la mecanismul cu camă rotativă şi tachet balansier cu rolă. Determinarea randamentului mecanismului.
5. Metode aproximative şi de integrare directă a ecuaţiilor de mişcare.

Partea a II-a:
6. Model nou în dinamica mecanismelor plane formate din angrenaje cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele.
7. Determinarea randamentului unui angrenaj cu roţi dinţate cu axe paralele pentru dinţii drepţi, în funcţie şi de gradul de acoperire al angrenajului.

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ARoTMM | IFToMM

January 15, 2011

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Radial Engine
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Four Times Otto Engine

The Wankel cycle. The "A" marks one of the three apexes of the rotor. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft and the white portion is the lobe of the eccentric shaft. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft.

Wankel Engine

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Stirling Engine
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Chebyshev linkage
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Hoekens linkage

 

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Roberts linkage

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Peaucellier-Lipkin linkage

 

 

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